DMA 150A BRANDING

PROFESSOR REBECA MENDEZ ASSISTANT ZEHAO CHANG

THUESDAY THUSDAYS 2 TO 5 PM

KINROSS SOUTH S124

OFFICE 228J AND 228K

This class is dedicated to the development of research, strategy and design, in particular, in the areas of organization, culture, and identity. The group will study how complex organizations are defined by their public identities, and how those identities can be strategized and designed. This course will further the development of Design | Media Arts as both an intellectual and a professional discipline.

Class Project
1: Weeks 1 through 3: Conduct research and work to develop the positioning and strategy for a World Currency.
2: Weeks 4 through 8: Design of the World Currency System.
3: Weeks 9 and 10: Create a website documenting your project: research, strategy and design.

Your research should include the history of money, and you will need to thoroughly study the following organizations, among others of your choosing:
  • The United Nations
  • The World Bank
  • The World Trade Organization
  • The World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
Course Goals
This course will further the development of Design | Media Arts as both an intellectual and a professional discipline.

Intellectual Discipline: Original research on the positioning and communication strategy of our given organization will yield a rigorous form of cultural history and analysis. Our interest is not merely to further the practices we study, but to employ design and design research as a means with which to intervene in the social and political life of the organization engaged. Our methodologies are intrinsically critical and will lead us to understandings of considerable intellectual value to those with a stake in study of organizational culture and identity. Our intention is the raise the professional standards for the implementation of design policy and to define a methodology that will influence design education worldwide.

Professional Design Discipline: Introduction to professional design and brand research and practice methodologies will enable the students to understand how complex organizations are defined by their public identities, and how those identities can be strategized and designed. Students will learn design research methodologies from a range of core disciplines, including sociology, engineering and marketing. Over the term of the course they will learn to apply these to the design of identity and communication strategy of our project organization, and as such we will innovate how design can contribute to the long-term success of a client enterprise.


Class Format
Each meeting the class will begin with a short lecture and/or presentation, and will follow with students' project presentations--each student will present their work to the class and we will collectively respond with constructive criticism.

Sometimes I will choose to do individual work critique instead of a collective work critique.

15 minute break at approximately 3:30 pm.

Attendance
Classes will start on time at 2:00 pm sharp.
If you are 15 minutes late you will be marked tardy.
Every tardy is a half grade point down on your final grade.
If you are later than 15 min. you'll be marked absent.
Every (unexcused) absence is 1 letter grade down. From A to B. Not from A+ to A.
3 unexcused absences result in failed class.

Grading System
Each class you will be evaluated on the following:
25% research
25% design
25% presentation
25% class participation
Your final grade is the average of all grades in combination with your attendance records.

Project Presentations
Research: Each class meeting, bring your research documentation in US letter format: 8.5 x 11 (horizontal or vertical). You will be not only evaluated on the quality of the research, but on it's organization and layout design.

Design presentations: All design presentations need to be formatted to 11 x 17 sheets (horizontal). Each student is expected to create a simple presentation style to be followed throughout the term.

Wall Presentation: All presentations must be ready, up on the wall by 2:00 pm promptly. I expect a clean and organized group presentation. I will explain the details in class.
FINAL CURRENCIES
STUDENT WORK by week by student
email to class

Week 9
100mioback.jpg
50miofront.jpg
100miofront.jpg
50mioback.jpg
2nd_denomination.pdf
bill_new__front.jpg
bill_new__back.jpg
20Petas.jpg
20Petas_back.jpg
petas_Web
5petas.jpg
5petas_back.jpg
2uniback.jpg
2unifront.jpg
Sandy_concept.rtf
TEN02.jpg
ONE05.jpg
ONEfinal.jpg
shirong_concept.doc
Week 8
1st_denomination.pdf
money-100.jpg
1.4.jpg
ONE04.jpg
Week 7
7-1 Clarification of Universal Responsibilities theme.pdf
na_mandala.jpg
sol_logo.gif
5petas.pdf.asp
logo.gif
1.13.jpg
1.23.jpg
ONE03.jpg
Week 6
100dove.jpg
6-1 First draft 1 Plus.jpg
6-3 First draft 10 Plus.jpg
6-2 First draft 5 Plus.jpg
6-4 Second draft 1 Plus.jpg
money_comp_2.jpg
money_comp_1.jpg
second_draft_5petas.pdf
1.1.jpg
1.2.jpg
150-research 6.doc
one02.jpg
Week 5
5-3 0010 coin chart.pdf
5-4 0025 coin chart.pdf
5-5 1 bill chart.pdf
5-9 50 bill chart.pdf
5-1 0001 coin chart.pdf
5-10 100 bill chart.pdf
5-6 5 bill chart.pdf
5-8 20 bill chart.pdf
5-2 0005 coin chart.pdf
5-7 10 bill chart.pdf
charts5.jpg
charts2.jpg
charts1.jpg
logotypes.jpg
charts6.jpg
charts4.jpg
charts3.jpg
Firstdraft.pdf
5.2.jpg
5.1.jpg
1.22.jpg
150-research 5.doc
five01.jpg
one01.jpg
150plan.xls
ten01.jpg
Week 4
4-1 World Bank logotype in Bell Goth Std.pdf
4-2 World Bank logotype in Eurostile.pdf
4-3 The World Bank currency, the Plus.pdf
mandalas3.JPG
mandalas5.JPG
mandalas4.JPG
mandalas6.JPG
mandalas2.JPG
mandalas1.JPG
chart.pdf
koeppen.jpg
150-research 4.doc
150-chart.doc
onehundred.JPG
logotype.JPG
ten.JPG
twenty.JPG
one.JPG
twohundredfifty.JPG
researchmyths.doc
five.JPG
Week 3
to print
3-8 Images of basic physical activities.pdf
3-13 Currency in Africa.pdf
3-12 Currency in Asia.pdf
3-2 Typography Ce-Le.pdf
3-14 Currency in Europe.pdf
3-10 Universal needs, universal rights, universal values.pdf
3-9 Images of basic creation.pdf
3-11 Currency in America.pdf
3-5 Images of children.pdf
3-6 Images of trees.pdf
3-7 Images of natural forces and features.pdf
3-4 Images of architecture.pdf
3-3 Typography Li-Z.pdf
3-1 Typography A-Ca.pdf
humanity6.JPG
fonts4.JPG
fonts5.JPG
humanity1.JPG
linework1.JPG
official1.JPG
fonts1.JPG
humanity5.JPG
fonts2.JPG
humanity2.JPG
humanity3.JPG
fonts3.JPG
humanity4.JPG
150-chart.doc
worldbank outlines.ai
typography02.JPG
universal03.JPG
universal05.JPG
universal04.JPG
currency.JPG
officiality02.JPG
officiality01.JPG
universal01.JPG
typography01.JPG
universal02.JPG
typography03.JPG
150worldstory.rtf
moodboard_ID-01.pdf
Week 2
2-1 Breaking down current media of exchange.pdf
2-2 Breaking down structures of transactions.pdf
survey.txt
social classes.txt
150.txt
research_001.gif
research_006.gif
research_002.gif
research_005.gif
research_004.gif
research_007.gif
research_008.gif
bbchart_smartcard.gif
research_003.gif
classes_currency.gif
single global currency2.pdf
single global currency.pdf
single global currency3.pdf
RFID.pdf
credit.pdf
atmid.ai
cashid.ai
barterid.ai
Week 1
cashchart.ai
camilla.txt
1-2 Timeline of growing European economic unity.pdf
1-1 Understanding the system, problems and solutions.pdf
brand.rtf
MoneyResearch.txt
Designing the Euros.txt
romanmosaic.jpg
Formation of European Union.txt
Organizations2.pdf
Money.pdf
Organizations.pdf
EU.pdf
counterfeiting.pdf
EU2.pdf
counterfeiting2.pdf
United Nations.txt
phase_2.txt
research_group10.10.doc
research10.06.txt
research10.05.doc
research_IMF-02.pdf
research_WTO-02.pdf
research_WTO-01.pdf
research_IMF-01.pdf
Week 0
 
camilla/week1/camilla.txt
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\f0\fs32 \cf0 The euro has been around for three years as a virtual currency. Stock and bond trades, bank transfers, credit card and other electronic transactions as well as international commerce have been conducted in euros since January 1, 1999. From this day, prices in the 12 euro-zone countries have also been displayed in euros, alongside those of the relevant national currency, which will be completely withdrawn from circulation within the next two months.\
\
But the change is not merely symbolic. The euro is now a physical means of exchange for 300 million Europeans in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.\
\
The small European states of San Marino, Monaco and the Vatican have all adopted the euro, along with Andorra, Kosovo and Montenegro. Also directly affected are the former colonial possessions of the various European powers. In total, 40 countries\'d1representing one in five of the world\'d5s nations\'d1have either adopted the euro or have tied their own currency to it. The Eastern European states that have applied for EU membership\'d1Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Latvia and the Baltic republics\'d1as well as Malta and Cyprus will also shortly adopt the euro. The single European currency could eclipse the dollar as a means of international exchange, or at least provide it with a significant rival.\
\
Britain, Denmark and Sweden are the only EU members not to have adopted the euro, but it is already functioning widely in these counties as a parallel currency. Many top retailers in these three states now accept the euro in their outlets and most high street banks are offering cheque accounts and mortgages in euros. Trade and tourism means euros will flood into Britain. The Labour government expects British people to make 40 million visits to the euro-zone in the next 12 months, while 13 million tourists from the euro-zone will spend over \'a34 billion in Britain each year. Most economists believe that Britain\'d5s eventual adoption of the euro is inevitable. Europe Minister Peter Hain said he doubted that the pound could survive in parallel with the new currency, and that Prime Minister Tony Blair would hold a referendum on adopting the euro well before 2006, the end of Labour\'d5s present term in office.\
\
These layers are expressing their instinctive opposition to anything that threatens to undermine the nationalism and xenophobia they use to divide and weaken the working class. If British workers, for example, are able to easily compare their living standards with those of working people on the continent, they would soon recognise how badly they are treated with regards to wages and social conditions, and the more they will be objectively encouraged to view their own fate as being tied with that of their European brothers and sisters. In this regard, it should be noted that one of the positive aspects of the introduction of the euro is that it has exposed the extent of price-fixing by the major retailers and manufacturers. Everything from cars, to clothes and CDs costs about a third more in Britain than on the continent.\
\
The mere creation of a common currency does not provide the basis for the harmonious development of economic life across the continent. The capitalist class is organically incapable of overcoming the fundamental conflict between globally organised production and the division of the world into antagonistic nation states. On the contrary, within the framework of the Single European Market, competition between the rival powers of Europe for continental hegemony will continue and deepen. The anti-euro wing of the British bourgeoisie, for example, has made it patently clear that it views the euro as a mechanism for ensuring German domination of the continent.\
The political and financial elites in Berlin, Paris et al argue that a single currency will boost competition and promote structural reforms, in order that European capital can compete more effectively against its rivals. It was conceived as a logical extension of the Single European Market, which eliminated barriers to investment and trade within Europe. The creation of a common currency will make it easier for European companies to raise capital, transfer production to areas with lower tax and labour costs, to merge into larger and more competitive units and to raise funds from the euro bond and security markets. In turn, this will, they hope, make national governments exercise what is euphemistically called \'d2fiscal discipline\'d3 and even strive for \'d2tax harmonisation\'d3 throughout Europe. What this means in practice is that each national government must cut business taxes, either shifting the tax burden onto the backs of working people, and/or cutting back and eliminating vital social programmes. The other demand from the boardrooms of the major corporations and finance houses has been for the elimination of whatever minimal labour legislation presently exists, so that wage levels and the cost of hiring and firing can be lowered, and capital mobility increased.\
\
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\f1\b \cf0 Global Currency Unit or GCU
\f0\b0 \
\
There seems to be a growing consensus that for an enterprise to function as a truly multinational enterprise a global perspective is needed. The question, however, has been raised whether a truly global perspective can prevail and be maintained when reports, budgets and performance evaluation systems are primarily denominated in a currency that lacks global perspective, being it the domestic currency of the parent, the local currency of the subsidiary, or both. The performance evaluation system should direct the subsidiary managers\'ab as well as headquarters managers\'ab efforts towards worldwide goals. This may prove to be difficult when the performance evaluation system is nationalistic in nature because of its currency denomination. For example, in U.S. MEs decision making by boards of directors and headquarters management is generally based upon U.S.-dollar information. Morsicato (1981) asserts that many high echelon managers do not understand how to interpret subsidiary results reported in local currency. If one level of management bases their decisions upon U.S.-dollar information and another level upon local currency information, problems with goal congruency and optimization of resources may rise. Therefore further attempts towards developing goal congruent multinational performance evaluation systems are needed (Morsicato, 1981). The creation of a Global Currency Unit (GCU) may be a step towards better performance evaluation systems.\
\
The currency denomination alternatives for performance evaluation actually used and discussed have been the currency of the parent company, the local currency of the subsidiary, or both. The GCU offers a totally new perspective and dimension. The GCU can be defined as a currency that would appropriately take into account each part of the ME\'abs operations and activities in an unbiased and non-nationalistic way. It is a currency that would be a conglomerate or hybrid of the different currencies relevant to the ME. In this respect it bears resemblance to the European Currency Unit (ECU).\
\
The major advantage of using a GCU is that it offers the ME a truly global perspective. The importance of developing a global strategy and maximizing results on a multinational basis has been emphasized by both business managers and academics in ME-related articles, presentations and discussions. One aspect, however, has been left out or forgotten from the discussion about a global perspective, namely that developing a GCU is possibly a prerequisite for achieving truly global thinking. The use of a GCU would actually force the management of headquarters as well as the management of the foreign subsidiaries towards global thinking. This is not the case when headquarters management of MEs bases its decisions upon parent currency information, which seemingly is the general practice in U.S. MEs. Preparing budgets and standards in a GCU would force the management of the constituent parts of the ME into global thinking. Subsidiary managers would be more apt to accept a performance evaluation system denominated in a GCU than a system denominated in the parent\'abs currency because they would be more assured that headquarters management actually is aiming for global objectives rather than predominantly parental objectives. Furthermore, the use of a GCU would provide a certain uniformity throughout the ME organisation. A consequential positive effect on behavior and performance could be expected.\
\
Another advantage of a GCU would be the smoothing effect it would have on budgets and reported results, that is, the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on performance evaluation would be reduced. If financial data is translated from a weak and unstable foreign currency into a strong parent currency, the result of the translation is extensively going to be affected by the exchange rate changes. A GCU, on the other hand, represents a sort of average currency in that its value falls somewhere inbetween the extremes of a weak and a strong currency. A decline in the value of the weak currency would be less extensive in relation to the GCU than to a possibly strong parent currency. In addition, the GCU would be more stable than the other currency units of the ME because it is a composition of the other currencies which means that adverse fluctuations in the other currencies would tend to even out when incorporated in the GCU.\
\
How would a ME construct its GCU? The construction of the GCU would be similar to the construction of the ECU. The ECU is a basket of 12 currencies. These are the German mark, French franc, British pound, Italian lira, Dutch guilder, Belgian franc, Spanish peseta, Danish krone, Irish punt, Portugese escudo, Greek drakma and Luxemburg franc. The last one is of little economic significance in determining the value of the ECU. The ECU is an integral part of the European Monetary System (EMS), popularly called the 'snake'. In the original construction of the ECU it was necessary to establish weights for the different currencies to be included. The weights were fixed as of June 30, 1974 on the basis of certain economic criteria. These criteria were the average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 1969-1973, that is, the preceding five years, and the internal trade within each member country. The weights assigned to each currency on June 30, 1974 as well as the weights assigned in connection with the most recent realignment, that is, on October 8, 1992 are displayed in Table 1. The Spanish peseta, Portugese escudo and Greek drakma were not part of the original ECU because Spain, Portugal and Greece were not European Community members in 1974. The composition of one ECU as it was established in 1974 is shown in Table 2. To express the value of the ECU in one of the national currencies some calculations are needed. As an example, the calculation of expressing one ECU in French francs is illustrated in Table 3.\
\
As can be seen from Table 1, the weight of the German mark has clearly increased from 1974 to 1992 showing that the German economy has strengthen as compared to the other European economies. Originally one ECU was equal to one U.S. dollar. Today one ECU is clearly more than one dollar showing that the economy of the European Community taken as a whole has strengthen in relation to the American economy since 1974. The main factor behind this development is the German mark and in that respect the development of the German economy. The German economy is clearly the dominant economy within the European Community. The recent turbulence in the currency exchange markets has also put the European Monetary System and consequently the ECU under pressure. Keeping relatively fixed exchange rates when national economies develop in different directions may not be realistic if realignments are not carried out sufficiently often and if the adjustments made are too small. The realignments of exchange rates are too much affected by political compromises and therefore newly established exchange rates may not sufficiently reflect underlying economic facts. The market of the ECU has extensively developed since the conception of the ECU. Today the market of the ECU offers basically the same services as the markets of all the other EMS currencies. Several companies publish their financial statements in ECUs. The French Saint Gobain is an example of this. The ECU is not the only currency composite of importance today but there is the Special Drawing Right (SDR) of the International Monetary Fund. The SDR consists of the U.S. dollar, Japanese yen, German mark, French franc and the British pound.\
\
Table 1: The weights of the ECU currencies\

\f2\fs26 30.06.1974 08.10.1992\
--------------------------\
German mark (DEM) 27.3% 31.76%\
French franc (FRF) 19.5% 19.98%\
British pound (GBP) 17.5% 11.11%\
Italian lira (ITL) 14.0% 8.68%\
Dutch guilder (NLG) 9.0% 9.94%\
Belgian franc (BEF) plus -- 8.16%\
Luxemburg franc (LFR) 8.2% --\
Spanish peseta (ESP) -- 4.93%\
Danish krone (DKK) 3.0% 2.60%\
Irish punt (IEP) 1.5% 1.15%\
Portugese escudo (PTE) -- 0.80%\
Greek drakma (GRD) -- 0.58%\
-----------------------\
100.0% 100.00%\
\
---------------------------------------------------\
Sources: Lefevre (1985), and Kauppalehti (January 22, 1993)\
\
\

\f0\fs32 Table 2: The composition of one ECU (1974)\

\f2\fs26 1 ECU = 0.828 DEM\
+ 1.15 FRF\
+ 0.0885 GBP\
+ 109.0 ITL\
+ 0.286 NLG\
+ 3.66 BEF\
+ 0.217 DKK\
+ 0.00759 IEP\
+ 0.14 LFR\
---------------------------------------------------\
Source: Lefevre (1985)\
\
\

\f0\fs32 Table 3: Calculation of the ECU rate, expressed in FRF as of July 25, 1983\

\f2\fs26 Currency Amount of currency Exchange rate in FRF Equivalent value in FRF\
(a) (b) (a) x (b) \
DEM 0.828 3.0067 2.4895 \
FRF 1.15 1.0000 1.1500 \
GBP 0.0885 11.9175 1.0547 \
ITL 109 0.005084 0.5542 \
NLG 0.286 2.6877 0.7687 \
BEF 3.66 0.150445 0.5506 \
DKK 0.217 0.8348 0.1812 \
IEP 0.00759 9.4960 0.0721 \
LFR 0.14 0.150445 0.0211 \
\
Rate of ECU in FRF 6.8421 \
\
---------------------------------------------------\
Source: Lefevre (1985)\
\
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\f0\fs32 \cf0 The basket of currencies in constructing the GCU would consist of the currencies relevant to the ME\'abs operations. In many instances it may be practical to leave out currencies which play a minor role in the ME\'abs operations (compare Luxemburg franc in the ECU). The currencies relevant to the ME\'abs operations may be determined on the basis of the ME\'abs sales in each currency, market share in each currency region, actual commitment in form of assets in each country (currency), actual costs incurred in each currency, or a combination of these. The most appropriate way of determining which currencies to include in the currency basket of the GCU may be to apply the functional currency concept as presented in the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52. "An entity\'abs functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates; normally that is the currency of the environment in which an entity primarily generates and expends cash" (Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 1981). FASB lists some economic factors or indicators, which should be considered both individually and collectively in determining the functional currency. These are cash flow indicators, sales indicators, expense indicators, finance indicators, and intercompany transactions and arrangements indicators. A more detailed clarification of these indicators is presented in Appendix A. FASB does not, however , exclude the use of other possible economic indicators than the ones listed.\
\
Once the currencies of the basket have been selected the initial weights of these currencies have to be determined. The weight of each currency in the basket would be based on its proportional representation within each category of the selected economic indicators. For instance, if sales are used as one economic indicator the average sales figure within each currency for the preceding three to five years could be used as a basis. In establishing the initial weights for the ECU, the average GDP for the preceding five years was the dominant economic factor used. Each ME must independently determine which economic factors to consider in assigning the weights to the currencies of its GCU.\
\
The representation of currencies and their corresponding weights within the GCU may be kept unchanged once determined until substantial changes in the ME\'abs operating environment occur. If such changes alter the significance of a currency within the GCU or add a currency of great importance to the ME\'abs environment and operations, the representation and weights of the GCU should be adjusted accordingly. Adjustments would specifically be needed in newly internationalized enterprises which are in their first stages of becoming multinational. Adjustments of weights are not desirable for small changes in the relative significance of currencies because stability and clarity of the system are desirable. Even if the representation of currencies and initial or basic weights remains unchanged for a period the so-called 'effective' weights change regularly according to the changes in the exchange rates of the currencies within the GCU, exactly the same way as exchange rate changes are incorporated into the ECU.\
\
The number of currencies to include in the GCU cannot be too high because the manageabilty and clarity of the GCU system would suffer. A number between the number of currencies within the SDR and ECU, that is, five to twelve may be suitable. If desired, a ME can construct different GCUs for different economic regions such as the European Community, North America, ASEAN countries, and so on. A system similar to the EMS is naturally not behind a GCU. This means that the exchange rates of the GCU currencies are not managed the same way as within the EMS (if not an ECU currency) but fluctuate to a greater extent. Consequently, the GCU would fluctuate more than the ECU. The GCU, however, would fluctuate less than the the individual currencies of the GCU.
\f2\fs26 \
}
GALLERIES
PATTERNS IN CURRENCY
CLASS RESOURCES
ILLUSTRATOR PATTERNING TECHNIQUES
CONVERT IMAGES TO AREAS
THE PATTERN BRUSH
ANIMAL PRINT PATTERNS
ASSIGNMENT DUE NOV 2
ASSIGNMENT DUE OCT 19
NOTES ON BRATTON'S LECTURE
BRAND EXPERIENCE CHART
BRAND IDENTITY PROCESS
PROJECT BRIEF SAMPLE
SYLLABUS.PDF
LINKS
TYPOGRAPHY.COM
EMIGRE
FONTSHOP
ADOBE
HOUSE INDUSTRIES
OURTYPE
LINOTYPE
DAFONT
FONTALICIOUS
TYPO-O-TONES
T26
TYPOTHEQUE
PHIL'S FONTS
MYTHOLOGIES - ROLAND BARTHES
SCENARIOS - KEES VAN DER HEIJDEN
THE ART OF THE LONG VIEW - PETER SCHWARTZ