History [ from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]
This article is about the academic discipline. For a general history of human beings, see History of the world.
For other uses, see History (disambiguation).
"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
- George Santayana
Historia (Allegory of History)
By Nikolaos Gysis (1892)
History (from Greek historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the human past. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.
Media influence [ from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]
Media influence or media effects are used in media studies, psychology, communication theory and sociology to refer to the theories about the ways in which mass media affect how their audiences think and behave.
Connecting the world to individuals and reproducing the self-image of society, critiques in the early-to-mid 20th century suggested that media weaken or delimit the individual's capacity to act autonomously — sometimes being ascribed an influence reminiscent of the telescreens of the dystopian novel 1984.
Current theories present a more complex interaction between the media and society. The media generate information as a network then publish information using articles, videos, and photos to a group of consumers, in turn influencing individual interpretations of the information provided while potentially influencing unrelated cultural and personal beliefs, as per the propaganda model. Mass media content created for newsworthy events and those stories that are not told all have consequences on the consumer and therefore the culture supposedly being influenced.
The media have a strong social and cultural impact upon society. This is predicated upon their ability to reach a wide audience with a strong and influential message. Marshall McLuhan uses the phrase "the medium is the message" as a means of explaining how the distribution of a message can often be more important than content of the message itself.
Television broadcasting has a large amount of control over the content society watches and the times in which it is viewed. This is a distinguishing feature of traditional media which New media have challenged by altering the participation habits of the public. The internet creates a space for more diverse political opinions, social and cultural viewpoints and a heightened level of consumer participation. There have been suggestions that allowing consumers to produce information through the internet will lead to an overload of information.
Causality [ from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]
"Cause" redirects here. For other uses, see Cause (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Casualty (disambiguation).
Causality is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first.
Though the causes and effects are typically related to changes or events, candidates include objects, processes, properties, variables, facts, and states of affairs; characterizing the causal relationship can be the subject of much debate.
The philosophical treatment of causality extends over millennia. In the Western philosophical tradition, discussion stretches back at least to Aristotle, and the topic remains a staple in contemporary philosophy.
Birth Certificate [ from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ]
(Redirected from Date of birth)
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document or a certified copy of or representation of the original record of birth.
The documentation of births is a practice widely held throughout human civilization, especially in China, Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Persia. The original purpose of birth registration was for tax purposes and for the determination of available military manpower. Births were initially registered with churches, who maintained registers of births. This practice continued into the 19th century. The compulsory registration of births with governmental agencies is a practice that originated in the United Kingdom in 1853. Most countries have statutes and laws that regulate the registration of births. In all countries, it is the responsibility of the mother's physician, midwife, hospital administrator, or the parents of the child to see that the birth is properly registered with the appropriate government agency.
The actual record of birth is stored with a government agency. That agency will issue certified copies or representations of the original birth record upon request, which can be used to apply for government benefits, such as passports. The certification is signed and/or sealed by the registrar or other custodian of birth records, who is commissioned by the government.
The right of every child to a name and nationality, and the responsibility of national governments to achieve this are contained in Articles 7 and 8 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: "All children have the right to a legally registered name, and nationality" (CRC Article 7) and "Governments should respect children's right to a name, a nationality and family ties" (CRC Article 8).
"...it's a small paper but it actually establishes who you are
and gives access to the rights and the privileges, and theobligations, of citizenship."
- Archbishop Desmond Tutu, February 2005.
Despite 191 countries ratifying the Convention, the births of millions of children worldwide go unregistered. By their very nature, data concerning unregistered children are approximate; however, it was estimated in 2008 that 51 million babies - more than two fifths of those born worldwide - were not registered at birth. This phenomenon disproportionately impacts indigenous populations and even in many developed countries, contributes to difficulties in fully accessing civic rights.
Birth registration opens the door to rights to children and adults which many other human beings take for granted: to prove their age; to prove their nationality; to receive healthcare; to go to school; to take exams; to be adopted; to protection from under-age military service or conscription; to marry; open a bank account; to hold
a driving licence; to obtain a passport; to inherit money or property; and to vote or stand for elected office.
'D.O.B. - date of birth'
is a research project focused on the day you were born. The aim is to figure out what world you were born into, what happened that day, besides the 'beginning of your life'? What other NEWS events occurred LOCALLY, NATIONALLY, GLOBALLY? What MUSIC was playing on the radio, what was popular on national TELEVISION, what was in FASHION, what was the WEATHER like? What star constellation were you born under? Which CELEBRITIES were born that day and/or were celebrating their birthdays. How were your parents and what were they doing? But also which people were actually there when your mother gave birth to you, were there older brothers and sisters? Were you born in a hospital, do your mom and dad have specific details and stories? What was the first picture that was taken of you?
This assignment is about gathering data, archiving, categorizing, scaling and visually translating data. The most important aspect of this assignment is 'story-telling;' finding connections, adopting and committing to facts and figures.
sources: the internet, newspapers (of that day and the day after), time-lines, info graphics, astrology, your family, the library, etc.
aims: mapping information, gaining knowledge about the world you were born into, editing that information into visually interesting form using typography skills, image- and other visual concepts.
The assignment starts with doing research, collecting data, archiving and categorizing it in three 'folders'; LOCAL / NATIONAL / GLOBAL. The data will be used to map overviews in historical timelines, using d.o.b. data and data of your last birthday. Parameters on the assignment will be discussed during class.
The last task is to find an overall concept in which these three 'maps' will be integrated into one piece. The choice of media will be free.
software used: Indesign, Illustrator, Photoshop and other sound- and motion software if necessary!